Writing Your Own Operations#

Let’s write our own “multiply” operation. There are two components to doing this:
  • Defining an operation class (a subclass of Operation)

  • Writing a function that ultimately calls mygrad.execute_op(YourOp, ...)

import numpy as np

import mygrad as mg
from mygrad import execute_op
from mygrad.operation_base import Operation
from mygrad.typing import ArrayLike

# All operations should inherit from Operation, or one of its subclasses
class CustomMultiply(Operation):
    """ Performs f(x, y) = x * y """

    def __call__(self, x: mg.Tensor, y: mg.Tensor) -> np.ndarray:
        # This method defines the "forward pass" of the operation.
        # It must bind the variable tensors to the op and compute
        # the output of the operation as a numpy array

        # All tensors must be bound as a tuple to the `variables`
        # instance variable.
        self.variables = (x, y)

        # The forward pass should be performed using numpy arrays,
        # not the tensors themselves.
        x_arr = x.data
        y_arr = y.data
        return x_arr * y_arr

    def backward_var(self, grad, index, **kwargs):
        """Given ``grad = dℒ/df``, computes ``∂ℒ/∂x`` and ``∂ℒ/∂y``

        ``ℒ`` is assumed to be the terminal node from which ``ℒ.backward()`` was

        grad : numpy.ndarray
            The back-propagated total derivative with respect to the present
            operation: dℒ/df. This will have the same shape as f, the result
            of the forward pass.

        index : Literal[0, 1]
            The index-location of ``var`` in ``self.variables``


        x, y = self.variables
        x_arr = x.data
        y_arr = y.data

        # The operation need not incorporate specialized logic for
        # broadcasting. The appropriate sum-reductions will be performed
        # by MyGrad's autodiff system.
        if index == 0:  # backprop through a
            return grad * y.data  # ∂ℒ/∂x = (∂ℒ/∂f)(∂f/∂x)
        elif index == 1:  # backprop through b
            return grad * x.data  # ∂ℒ/∂y = (∂ℒ/∂f)(∂f/∂y)

# Our function stitches together our operation class with the
# operation arguments via `mygrad.prepare_op`
def custom_multiply(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike, constant=None) -> mg.Tensor:
    # `execute_op` will take care of:
    #  - casting `x` and `y` to tensors if they are instead array-likes
    #  - propagating 'constant' status to the resulting output based on the inputs
    #  - handling in-place operations (specified via the `out` parameter)
    return execute_op(CustomMultiply, x, y, constant=constant)

We can now use our differentiable function!

>>> x = mg.tensor(2.0)
>>> y = mg.tensor([1.0, 2.0, 3.0])

>>> custom_multiply(x, y).backward()
>>> x.grad, y.grad
(array(6.), array([2., 2., 2.]))

Documentation for mygrad.Operation#


Base class for all tensor operations that support back-propagation of gradients.

Operation.backward(grad, **kwargs)

Back-propagates the gradient through all of the operation's inputs, which are stored in the tuple self.variables.

Operation.backward_var(grad, index, **kwargs)

Given grad = dℒ/df, computes ∂ℒ/∂x_{i}, where x_{i} is one of x1, ...., xn.